Macapat

macapat:ha?:What macapat is?Macapat is the classic traditional song from Java. Macapat also be found in the Balinese, Madurese, and Sundanese culture. If we look at kerata basa(the original Javanese language ), macapat have mean read four-four(read the four-four). How to read a woven every four syllables. Estimated macapat appear at the end of Majapahit Kingdom in Java and the beginning of Walisanga influence (Walisanga= 9 Moslem guardian). But that estimate is uncertain, because there is no written evidence to be sure. Macapat widely used in some Middle Javanese Literature and new Javanese Literature. When compared with Kakawin(Kakawin is a form of poetry in the ancient Javanese language with metrum originating from India.), the rules in macapat is easier. The books of the New Mataram era, such as Serat Wedhatama, Serat Wulangreh, Serat Wirid Hidayat Jati, Serat Kalatidha, and others arranged this song. The rules are there to:

* Guru gatra : the number gatra / lines per stanza.
* Guru wilangan : the syllables / syllables each gatra / line.
* Guru lagu : fall-out sound of each syllable gatra / line.

Basically, there are several kinds of macapat, generally divided into three types, namely:
1. Sekar Macapat or Sekar Alit
This macapat songs, also called the original of macapat, which is widely used in various kinds of purposes. The sequence of Javanese song is similar to the way human life from beginning life to the end or from baby until death. The sequence below:

* Maskumambang
Describing the baby still in his mother's womb, of unknown gender, kumambang means floated in mothers womb.
* Mijil
Means have been born and clearly male or female.
* Sinom
Means youth, the most important for the youth is to seek knowledge as much as possible.
* Kinanthi
From the word kanthi or guided, which means guided in order to live a life in the world.
* Asmarandana
Means love, the love of men to women or vice versa which is a divine by destiny.
* Gambuh
From the identical word / union which means if it is united in love, women and men can live together.
* Dhandhanggula
Describes human life in happiness when they won ambition. Find soul mate, gave birth to a child, a prosperous life, and etc.
* Durma
From the word darma/alms. Human when feel life in prosperous it will growing affection for others who are living in poverty so it will grow a desire to share and give. That also was supported by religious, morality and the social nature of human.
* Pangkur
Mungkur word which meant getting rid of egoistic. The priority of life is desire to share and care with others.
* Megatruh
Megat word have meant separation of soul and body ( pegat Roh) or the separation of life, when the fate of death comes.
* Pocung
When the remaining live bodies, wrapped in white cloth before
burial.

Some macapat as the Song often used at the time of Majapahit Empire, for example:
* Jurudemung
* Wirangrong
* Balabak

2. Sekar Ageng
There is only one macapat of Sekar Ageng(large/big) , namely Girisa. When viewed from the level of difficulty, Sekar Ageng almost similar with Kakawin on ancient time.

Here is example for macapat with Javanese gamelan: Megatruh - Sinom Parijata - Nyutro



And a video in the below is Asmaradana in gamelan music which played by western:

Page Sources :
www.macapat.4t.com/penamaan.htm
id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macapat
www.youtube.com

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